Reference Guide: Top-Down Effects of Cognition on Perception

Last Updated: 4/15/17


Introduction
This page contains a list of all published and in-press empirical reports since 1995 that allege the existence of so-called top-down effects of various types of cognition on visual perception. The list below was initially compiled by Chaz Firestone, and it contains all such papers of which we in the Yale Perception & Cognition Lab are aware, as of the date listed above.

The challenge of understanding the natural world is to capture generalizations -- to 'carve nature at its joints'. Where are the joints of the mind? Easily, the most natural and robust distinction between types of mental processes is that between perception and cognition. In contrast to the traditional "modular" understanding of perception, according to which visual processing is "cognitively impenetrable" and is encapsulated from higher-level cognition, a tidal wave of recent research alleges that visual perception is directly influenced by higher-level factors including belief, desire, emotion, intention, action, categorization, and language. Such reports surged previously during the so-called New Look movement in psychology in the 1950s, and have skyrocketed in recent years, per the list below.

If you know of any additions or updates that should be listed here, please let us know!

Note, though, that this page is meant to be constrained in several important senses. First, it contains only empirical reports, not theoretical discussions. Second, it contains only reports that themselves allege top-down effects, and not empirical challenges to such effects -- which our own lab has been producing of late. In fact, this list was initially compiled in support of a forthcoming manifesto we have written, whose title will effectively convey our thesis:
Firestone, C., & Scholl, B. J. (in press). Cognition does not affect perception: Evaluating the evidence for 'top-down' effects. Behavioral & Brain Sciences.
Third, though the phrase "top-down" is used in a spectacular variety of ways across many literatures, this list covers only a single (but important!) sense of this term: the notion that higher-level cognitive states can influence visual processing (and conscious percepts), thus disproving the thesis that seeing results from modular, informationally encapsulated, cognitively impenetrable processing. In particular, we are not listing studies that allege other sorts of "top-down" effects (which do not bear on whether there is a salient joint in the mind between seeing and thinking), such as descriptions of descending neural pathways, cross-modal effects, perceptual learning, visual context effects, or demonstrations of hardwired "unconscious inferences" in vision. We are also not including conference abstracts, manuscripts under review, etc.

The studies below are listed in chronological order, and by alphabetical order within year.

Papers Since 1995 (179 papers, 41 different journals)
Goldstone, R. L. (1995). Effects of categorization on color perception. Psychological Science, 6, 298-304.

Riskind, J. H., Moore, R., & Bowley, L. (1995). The looming of spiders: The fearful perceptual distortion of movement and menace. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 33, 171-178.

Bulthoff, I., Bulthoff, H., & Sinha, P. (1998). Top-down influences on stereoscopic depth-perception. Nature Neuroscience, 1, 254-257.

Ramachandran, V. S., Armel, C., Foster, C., & Stoddard, R. (1998). Object recognition can drive motion perception. Nature, 395, 852-853.

Bhalla, M., & Proffitt, D. R. (1999). Visual-motor recalibration in geographical slant perception. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 25, 1076-1096.

Jordan, T. R., Thomas, S. M., & Scott-Brown, K. C. (1999). The illusory-letters phenomenon: An illustration of graphemic restoration in visual word recognition. Perception, 28, 1413-1416.

Struber, D., & Stadler, M. (1999). Differences in top-down influences on the reversal rate of different categories of reversible figures. Perception, 28, 1185-1196.

Tse, P. U., & Cavanagh, P. (2000). Chinese and Americans see opposite apparent motions in a Chinese character. Cognition, 74, B27-B32.

Yu, K. (2000). Can semantic knowledge influence motion correspondence? Perception, 29, 693-707.

Changizi, M. A., & Hall, W. G. (2001). Thirst modulates a perception. Perception, 30, 1489-1497.

Li, J.-L., & Yeh, S.-L. (2003). Do "Chinese and American see opposite apparent motions in a Chinese character"? Tse and Cavanagh (2000) replicated and revised. Visual Cognition, 10, 537-547.

Proffitt, D. R., Stefanucci, J. K., Banton, T., & Epstein, W. (2003). The role of effort in perceiving distance. Psychological Science, 14, 106-112.

Creem-Regehr, S. H., Gooch, A. A., Sahm, C. S., & Thompson, W. B. (2004). Perceiving virtual geographical slant: Action influences perception. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 30, 811-821.

Wesp, R., Cichello, P., Gracia, E. B., & Davis, K. (2004). Observing and engaging in purposeful actions with objects influences estimates of their size. Perception & Psychophysics, 66, 1261-1267.

Witt, J. K., Proffitt, D. R., & Epstein, W. (2004). Perceiving distance: A role of effort and intent. Perception, 33, 577-590.

Maner, J. K., Kenrick, D. T., Becker, D. V., Robertson, T. E., Hofer, B., Neuberg, S. L., et al. (2005). Functional projection: How fundamental social motives can bias interpersonal perception. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 88, 63-78.

Witt, J. K., & Proffitt, D. R. (2005). See the ball, hit the ball: Apparent ball size is correlated with batting average. Psychological Science, 16, 937-938.

Witt, J. K., Proffitt, D. R., & Epstein, W. (2005). Tool use affects perceived distance, but only when you intend to use it. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 31, 880-888.

Balcetis, E., & Dunning, D. (2006). See what you want to see: Motivational influences on visual perception. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 91, 612-625.

Hansen, T., Olkkonen, M., Walter, S., & Gegenfurtner, K. R. (2006). Memory modulates color appearance. Nature Neuroscience, 9, 1367-1368.

Levin, D. T., & Banaji, M. R. (2006). Distortions in the perceived lightness of faces: The role of race categories. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 135, 501-512.

Balcetis, E., & Dale, R. (2007). Conceptual set as a top-down constraint on visual object identification. Perception, 36, 581-595.

Balcetis, E., & Dunning, D. (2007). Cognitive dissonance and the perception of natural environments. Psychological Science, 18, 917-921.

Meier, B. P., Robinson, M. D., Crawford, L. E., & Ahlvers, W. J. (2007). When "light" and "dark" thoughts become light and dark responses: Affect biases brightness judgments. Emotion, 7, 366-376.

Meteyard, L., Bahrami, B., & Vigliocco, G. (2007). Motion detection and motion verbs: Language affects low-level visual perception. Psychological Science, 18, 1007-1013.

Vishton, P. M., Stephens, N. J., Nelson, L. A., Morra, S. E., Brunick, K. L., & Stevens, J. A. (2007). Planning to reach for an object changes how the reacher perceives it. Psychological Science, 18, 713-719.

Bernstein, M., Young, S., Brown, C., Sacco, D., & Claypool, H. (2008). Adaptive responses to social exclusion: Social rejection improves detection of real and fake smiles. Psychological Science, 19, 981-983.

Davidoff, J., Fonteneau, E., & Goldstein, J. (2008). Cultural differences in perception: Observations from a remote culture. Journal of Cognition and Culture, 8, 189-209.

Lupyan, G., & Spivey, M. J. (2008). Perceptual processing is facilitated by ascribing meaning to novel stimuli. Current Biology, 18, R410-R412.

Olkkonen, M., Hansen, T., & Gegenfurtner, K. R. (2008). Color appearance of familiar objects: Effects of object shape, texture, and illumination changes. Journal of Vision, 8, 13:1-16.

Rahman, R. A., & Sommer, W. (2008). Seeing what we know and understand: How knowledge shapes perception. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 15, 1055-1063.

Schnall, S., Harber, K. D., Stefanucci, J. K., & Proffitt, D. R. (2008). Social support and the perception of geographical slant. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 44, 1246-1255.

Stefanucci, J. K., Proffitt, D. R., Clore, G. L., & Parekh, N. (2008). Skating down a steeper slope: Fear influences the perception of geographical slant. Perception, 37, 321.

Teachman, B. A., Stefanucci, J. K., Clerkin, E. M., Cody, M. W., & Proffitt, D. R. (2008). A new mode of fear expression: Perceptual bias in height fear. Emotion, 8, 296-301.

van Ulzen, N. R., Semin, G. R., Oudejans, R. R. D., & Beek, P. J. (2008). Affective stimulus properties influence size perception and the Ebbinghaus illusion. Psychological Research, 72, 304-310.

Veltkamp, M., Aarts, H., & Custers, R. (2008). Perception in the service of goal pursuit: Motivation to attain goals enhances the perceived size of goal-instrumental objects. Social Cognition, 26, 720-736.

Whitson, J. A., & Galinsky, A. D. (2008). Lacking control increases illusory pattern perception. Science, 322, 115-117.

Witt, J. K., & Proffitt, D. R. (2008). Action-specific influences on distance perception: A role for motor simulation. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 34, 1479-1492.

Witt, J. K., Linkenauger, S. A., Bakdash, J. Z., & Proffitt, D. R. (2008). Putting to a bigger hole: Golf performance relates to perceived size. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 15, 581-585.

Bocanegra, B. R., & Zeelenberg, R. (2009). Emotion improves and impairs early vision. Psychological Science, 20, 707-713.

Canal-Bruland, R., & van der Kamp, J. (2009). Action goals influence action-specific perception. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 16, 1100-1105.

Caruso, E. M., Mead, N. L., & Balcetis, E. (2009). Political partisanship influences perception of biracial candidates' skin tone. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 106, 20168-20173.

Chambon, M. (2009). Embodied perception with others' bodies in mind: Stereotype priming influence on the perception of spatial environment. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 45, 283-287.

Clerkin, E. M., Cody, M. W., Stefanucci, J. K., Proffitt, D. R., & Teachman, B. A. (2009). Imagery and fear influence height perception. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 23, 381-386.

Lessard, D. A., Linkenauger, S. A., & Proffitt, D. R. (2009). Look before you leap: Jumping ability affects distance perception. Perception, 38, 1863-1866.

Linkenauger, S. A., Witt, J. K., Stefanucci, J. K., Bakdash, J. Z., & Proffitt, D. R. (2009). The effects of handedness and reachability on perceived distance. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 35, 1649-1660.

Mitterer, H., Horschig, J. M., Musseler, J., & Majid, A. (2009). The influence of memory on perception: It's not what things look like, it's what you call them. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 35, 1557-1562.

Stefanucci, J. K., & Geuss, M. N. (2009). Big people, little world: The body influences size perception. Perception, 38, 1782-1795.

Stefanucci, J. K., & Proffitt, D. R. (2009). The roles of altitude and fear in the perception of height. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 35, 424-438.

Stefanucci, J. K., & Storbeck, J. J. (2009). Don't look down: Emotional arousal elevates height perception. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 138, 131-145.

Thierry, G., Athanasopoulos, P., Wiggett, A., Dering, B., & Kuipers, J.-R. (2009). Unconscious effects of language-specific terminology on preattentive color perception. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 106, 4567-4570.

Vrins, S., de Wit, T. C. J., & van Lier, R. (2009). Bricks, butter, and slices of cucumber: Investigating semantic influences in amodal completion. Perception, 38, 17-29.

Witt, J. K., & Dorsch, T. E. (2009). Kicking to bigger uprights: Field goal kicking performance influences perceived size. Perception, 38, 1328-1340.

Witt, J. K., Linkenauger, S. A., Bakdash, J. Z., Augustyn, J. S., Cook, A., & Proffitt, D. R. (2009). The long road of pain: Chronic pain increases perceived distance. Experimental Brain Research, 192, 145-148.

Balcetis, E., & Dunning, D. (2010). Wishful seeing: More desired objects are seen as closer. Psychological Science, 21, 147-152.

Bubl, E., Kern, E., Ebert, D., Bach, M., & Tebartz van Elst, L. (2010). Seeing gray when feeling blue? Depression can be measured in the eye of the diseased. Biological Psychiatry, 68, 205-208.

Canal-Bruland, R., Pijpers, J. R. R., & Oudejans, R. R. D. (2010). The influence of anxiety on action-specific perception. Anxiety, Stress & Coping, 23, 353-361.

Dils, A. T., & Boroditsky, L. (2010). Processing unrelated language can change what you see. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 17, 882-888.

Dils, A. T., & Boroditsky, L. (2010). Visual motion aftereffect from understanding motion language. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 107, 16396-16400.

Geuss, M. N., Stefanucci, J. K., de Benedictis-Kessner, J., & Stevens, N. R. (2010). A balancing act: Physical balance, through arousal, influences size perception. Attention, Perception & Psychophysics, 72, 1890-1902.

Landau, A. N., Aziz-Zadeh, L., & Ivry, R. B. (2010). The influence of language on perception: Listening to sentences about faces affects the perception of faces. Journal of Neuroscience, 30, 15254-15261.

Linkenauger, S. A., Ramenzoni, V., & Proffitt, D. R. (2010). Illusory shrinkage and growth: Body-based rescaling affects the perception of size. Psychological Science, 21, 1318-1325.

Lupyan, G., Thompson-Schill, S. L., & Swingley, D. (2010). Conceptual penetration of visual processing. Psychological Science, 21, 682-691.

Masters, R., Poolton, J., & van der Kamp, J. (2010). Regard and perceptions of size in soccer: Better is bigger. Perception, 39, 1290-1295.

Schnall, S., Zadra, J. R., & Proffitt, D. R. (2010). Direct evidence for the economy of action: Glucose and the perception of geographical slant. Perception, 39, 464-482.

Stefanucci, J. K., & Geuss, M. N. (2010). Duck! Scaling the height of a horizontal barrier to body height. Attention, Perception & Psychophysics, 72, 1338-1349.

Witt, J. K., & Sugovic, M. (2010). Performance and ease influence perceived speed. Perception, 39, 1341-1353.

Witt, J. K., Proffitt, D. R., & Epstein, W. (2010). When and how are spatial perceptions scaled? Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 36, 1153-1160.

Alter, A. L., & Balcetis, E. (2011). Fondness makes the distance grow shorter: Desired locations seem closer because they seem more vivid. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 47, 16-21.

Anderson, E., Siegel, E. H., Bliss-Moreau, E., & Barrett, L. F. (2011). The visual impact of gossip. Science, 332, 1446-1448.

Anderson, E., Siegel, E. H., & Barrett, L. F. (2011). What you feel influences what you see: The role of affective feelings in resolving binocular rivalry. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 47, 856-860.

Canal-Bruland, R., Zhu, F. F., van der Kamp, J., & Masters, R. S. W. (2011). Target-directed visual attention is a prerequisite for action-specific perception. Acta Psychologica, 136, 285-289.

Fetterman, A., Robinson, M., Gordon, R., & Elliot, A. (2011). Anger as seeing red: Perceptual sources of evidence. Social Psychological and Personality Science, 2, 311-316.

Harber, K. D., Yeung, D., & Iacovelli, A. (2011). Psychosocial resources, threat, and the perception of distance and height: Support for the resources and perception model. Emotion, 11, 1080-1090.

Lee, C., Linkenauger, S. A., Bakdash, J. Z., Joy-Gaba, J. A., & Proffitt, D. R. (2011). Putting like a pro: The role of positive contagion in golf performance and perception. PLoS One, 6, e26016.

Linkenauger, S. A., Mohler, B. J., & Proffitt, D. R. (2011). Body-based perceptual rescaling revealed through the size-weight illusion. Perception, 40, 1251-1253.

Linkenauger, S. A., Witt, J. K., & Proffitt, D. R. (2011). Taking a hands-on approach: Apparent grasping ability scales the perception of object size. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 37, 1432-1441.

Morgado, N., Muller, D., Gentaz, E., & Palluel-Germain, R. (2011). Close to me? The influence of affective closeness on space perception. Perception, 40, 877-879.

Riener, C. R., Stefanucci, J. K., Proffitt, D. R., & Clore, G. L. (2011). An effect of mood on the perception of geographical slant. Cognition & Emotion, 25, 174-182.

Taylor, J. E. T., Witt, J. K., & Sugovic, M. (2011). When walls are no longer barriers: Perception of wall height in parkour. Perception, 40, 757-760.

van der Hoort, B., Guterstam, A., & Ehrsson, H. H. (2011). Being Barbie: The size of one's own body determines the perceived size of the world. PLoS One, 6, e20195.

van Koningsbruggen, G. M., Stroebe, W., & Aarts, H. (2011). Through the eyes of dieters: Biased size perception of food following tempting food primes. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 47, 293-299.

Witt, J. K. (2011). Tool use influences perceived shape and perceived parallelism, which serve as indirect measures of perceived distance. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 37, 1148-1156.

Witt, J. K., Schuck, D. M., & Taylor, J. E. T. (2011). Action-specific effects underwater. Perception, 40, 530-537.

Witzel, C., Valkova, H., Hansen, T., & Gegenfurtner, K. R. (2011). Object knowledge modulates colour appearance. i-Perception, 2, 13-49.

Balcetis, E., Dunning, D., & Granot, Y. (2012). Subjective value determines initial dominance in binocular rivalry. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 48, 122-129.

Banerjee, P., Chatterjee, P., & Sinha, J. (2012). Is it light or dark? Recalling moral behavior changes perception of brightness. Psychological Science, 23, 407-409.

Blechert, J., Sheppes, G., Di Tella, C., Williams, H., & Gross, J. J. (2012). See what you think: Reappraisal modulates behavioral and neural responses to social stimuli. Psychological Science, 23, 346-353.

Bloesch, E. K., Davoli, C. C., Roth, N., Brockmole, J. R., & Abrams, R. A. (2012). Watch this! Observed tool use affects perceived distance. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 19, 177-183.

Canal-Bruland, R., Pijpers, J. R. R., & Oudejans, R. R. D. (2012). Close, and a cigar! Why size perception relates to performance. Perception, 41, 354-356.

Cole, S., Balcetis, E., & Dunning, D. (2012). Affective signals of threat increase perceived proximity. Psychological Science, 24, 34-40.

Davoli, C. C., Brockmole, J. R., & Witt, J. K. (2012). Compressing perceived distance with remote tool-use: Real, imagined, and remembered. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 38, 80-89.

Doerrfeld, A., Sebanz, N., & Shiffrar, M. (2012). Expecting to lift a box together makes the load look lighter. Psychological Research, 76, 467-475.

Duguid, M. M., & Goncalo, J. A. (2012). Living large: The powerful overestimate their own height. Psychological Science, 23, 36-40.

Granzier, J. J. M., & Gegenfurtner, K. R. (2012). Effects of memory colour on colour constancy for unknown coloured objects. i-Perception, 3, 190-215.

Kirsch, W., Herbort, O., Butz, M. V., & Kunde, W. (2012). Influence of motor planning on distance perception within the peripersonal space. PLoS One, 7, e34880.

Lee, Y., Lee, S., Carello, C., & Turvey, M. T. (2012). An archer's perceived form scales the 'hitableness' of archery targets. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 38, 1125-1131.

Osiurak, F., Morgado, N., & Palluel-Germain, R. (2012). Tool use and perceived distance: When unreachable becomes spontaneously reachable. Experimental Brain Research, 218, 331-339.

Pelekanos, V., & Moutoussis, K. (2012). The effect of language on visual contrast sensitivity. Perception, 40, 1402-1412.

Prinz, J., & Seidel, A. (2012). Alligator or squirrel: Musically induced fear reveals threat in ambiguous figures. Perception, 41, 1535-1539.

Radel, R., & Clement-Guillotin, C. (2012). Evidence of motivational influences in early visual perception: Hunger modulates conscious access. Psychological Science, 23, 232-234.

Slepian, M. L., Masicampo, E. J., Toosi, N. R., & Ambady, N. (2012). The physical burdens of secrecy. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 141, 619-624.

Song, H., Vonasch, A. J., Meier, B. P., & Bargh, J. A. (2012). Brighten up: Smiles facilitate perceptual judgment of facial lightness. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 48, 450-452.

Stefanucci, J. K., Gagnon, K. T., Tompkins, C. L., & Bullock, K. E. (2012). Plunging into the pool of death: Imagining a dangerous outcome influences distance perception. Perception, 41, 1-11.

Webster, M. A., & Kay, P. (2012). Color categories and color appearance. Cognition, 122, 375-392.

Wesp, R., & Gasper, J. (2012). Is size misperception of targets simply justification for poor performance? Perception, 41, 994-996.

Witt, J. K., & Sugovic, M. (2012). Does ease to block a ball affect perceived ball speed? Examination of alternative hypotheses. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 38, 1202-1214.

Witt, J. K., Sugovic, M., & Taylor, J. E. T. (2012). Action-specific effects in a social context: Others' abilities influence perceived speed. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 38, 715-725.

Wong, Y. K., & Gauthier, I. (2012). Music-reading expertise alters visual spatial resolution for musical notation. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 19, 594-600.

Zell, E., & Balcetis, E. (2012). The influence of social comparison on visual representation of one's face. PLoS One, 7, e36742.

Banakou, D., Groten, R., & Slater, M. (2013). Illusory ownership of a virtual child body causes overestimation of object sizes and implicit attitude changes. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 110, 12846-12851.

Bechlivanidis, C., & Lagnado, D.. (2013). Does the 'why' tell us the 'when'? Psychological Science, 24, 1563-1572.

Cole, S., & Balcetis, E. (2013). Sources of resources: Bioenergetic and psychoenergetic resources influence distance perception. Social Cognition, 31, 721-732.

Cole, S., Balcetis, E., & Zhang, S. (2013). Visual perception and regulatory conflict: Motivation and physiology influence distance perception. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 142, 18-22.

den Daas, C., Hafner, M., & de Wit, J. (2013). Sizing opportunity: Biases in estimates of goal-relevant objects depend on goal congruence. Social Psychological and Personality Science, 4, 362-368.

Fessler, D. M. T., & Holbrook, C. (2013). Friends shrink foes: The presence of comrades decreases the envisioned physical formidability of an opponent. Psychological Science, 24, 797-802.

Gray, R. (2013). Being selective at the plate: Processing dependence between perceptual variables relates to hitting goals and performance. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 39, 1124-1142.

Jin, Z., & Lee, Y. (2013). Enlargement of perceived target size: Is it intentionally or naturally? Perceptual & Motor Skills, 117, 1-12.

Kirsch, W., & Kunde, W. (2013). Moving further moves things further away in visual perception: Position-based movement planning affects distance judgments. Experimental Brain Research, 226, 431-440.

Kirsch, W., & Kunde, W. (2013). Visual near space is scaled to parameters of current action plans. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 39, 1313-1325.

Linkenauger, S. A., Leyrer, M., Bulthoff, H. H., & Mohler, B. J. (2013). Welcome to Wonderland: The influence of the size and shape of a virtual hand on the perceived size and shape of virtual objects. PLoS One, 8, e68594.

Lupyan, G., & Ward, E. J. (2013). Language can boost otherwise unseen objects into visual awareness. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 110, 14196-14201.

Morgado, N., Gentaz, E., Guinet, E., Osiurak, F., & Palluel-Germain, R. (2013). Within reach but not so reachable: obstacles matter in visual perception of distances. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 20, 462-467.

Oishi, S., Schiller, J., & Gross, E. B. (2013). Felt understanding and misunderstanding affect the perception of pain, slant, and distance. Social Psychological and Personality Science, 4, 259-266.

Pascucci, D., & Turatto, M. (2013). Immediate effect of internal reward on visual adaptation. Psychological Science, 24, 1317-1322.

Stern, C., Cole, S., Gollwitzer, P. M., Oettingen, G., & Balcetis, E. (2013). Effects of implementation intentions on anxiety, perceived proximity, and motor performance. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 39, 623-635.

Sugovic, M., & Witt, J. K. (2013). An older view on distance perception: Older adults perceive walkable extents as farther. Experimental Brain Research, 226, 383-391.

Takahashi, K., Meilinger, T., Watanabe, K., & Bulthoff, H. H. (2013). Psychological influences on distance estimation in a virtual reality environment. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 7.

Taylor-Covill, G. A. H., & Eves, F. F. (2013). Slant perception for stairs and screens: Effects of sex and fatigue in a laboratory environment. Perception, 42, 459-469.

White, E., Shockley, K., & Riley, M. A. (2013). Multimodally specified energy expenditure and action-based distance judgments. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 20, 1371-1377.

Witt, J. K., & Sugovic, M. (2013). Catching ease influences perceived speed: Evidence for action-specific effects from action-based measures. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 20, 1364-1370.

Witt, J. K., & Sugovic, M. (2013). Response bias cannot explain action-specific effects: Evidence from compliant and non-compliant participants. Perception, 42, 138-152.

Witt, J. K., & Sugovic, M. (2013). Spiders appear to move faster than non-threatening objects regardless of one's ability to block them. Acta Psychologica, 143, 284-291.

Gantman, A. P., & Van Bavel, J. J. (2014). The moral pop-out effect: Enhanced perceptual awareness of morally relevant stimuli. Cognition, 132, 22-29.

Gray, R., Navia, J. A., & Allsop, J. (2014). Action-specific effects in aviation: What determines judged runway size? Perception, 43, 145-154.

Hajnal, A., Bunch, D. A., & Kelty-Stephen, D. G. (2014). Going for distance and going for speed: Effort and optical variables shape information for distance perception from observation to response. Attention, Perception & Psychophysics, 76, 1015-1035.

Huynh, S., Stefanucci, J. K., & Aspinwall, L. G. (2014). Self-affirmation counters the effects of self-regulatory resource depletion on height perception. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 52, 96-100.

Kemmelmeier, M., & Chavez, H. L. (2014). Biases in the perception of Barack Obama's skin tone. Analyses of Social Issues and Public Policy, 14, 137-161.

Kirsch, W., & Kunde, W. (2014). Impact of planned movement direction on judgments of visual locations. Psychological Research, 78, 705-720.

Kirsch, W., Konigstein, E., & Kunde, W. (2014). Action feedback affects the perception of action-related objects beyond actual action success. Frontiers in Psychology, 5.

Kirsch, W., Konigstein, E., & Kunde, W. (2014). Hitting ability and perception of object's size: Evidence for a negative relation. Attention, Perception & Psychophysics, 76, 1752-1764.

Kranjec, A., Lupyan, G., & Chatterjee, A. (2014). Categorical biases in perceiving spatial relations. PLoS One, 9, e98604.

Krosch, A., & Amodio, D. (2014). Economic scarcity alters the perception of race. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 111, 9079-9084.

Krpan, D., & Schnall, S. (2014). Too close for comfort: Stimulus valence moderates the influence of motivational orientation on distance perception. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 107, 978-993.

Krpan, D., & Schnall, S. (2014). When perception says "no" to action: Approach cues make steep hills appear even steeper. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 55, 89-98.

Kuylen, C., Balas, B., & Thomas, L. E. (2014). My shadow, myself: Cast-body shadows are embodied. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 21, 676-681.

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