Reference Guide: Inattentional Blindness
Last Updated: 6/28/16
This page is a list of all published and in-press papers that investigate (or focus significant discussion on) the phenomenon of inattentional blindness. The list below contains all such papers of which we in the Yale Perception & Cognition Lab are aware, as of the date listed above. In recent years the number of researchers exploring this phenomenon has skyrocketed, and this trend seems to be continuing. This has begun to make it difficult to keep track of the relevant literature -- especially as more studies explore this topic without naming it in titles or abstracts. Thus this page. We initially collected these references for a forthcoming review of this work, but we will now also attempt to keep this list current, and we hope that it may be of some use to others.
If you know of any additions or updates that should be listed here, please let us know!
(Note, though, that we are intending 'inattentional blindness' to be read in a narrow but important sense here -- referring to the complete failure to consciously perceive an otherwise-salient object or event when attention and expectation are otherwise engaged. As such, this page does not list studies that involve (1) failures of visual awareness that do not depend on a lack of attention [e.g. motion-induced blindness]; (2) failures of visual awareness that do not depend on a lack of expectation [e.g. the attentional blink, or repetition blindness]; (3) failures to perceive dynamic changes to objects that may nevertheless be themselves perceived [e.g. change blindness]; (4) cases wherein attentional factors briefly delay but do not completely prevent visual awareness [as in many human factors studies]; or (5) failures to see or recall only some features of an object, when the object itself is perceived [e.g. in many visual working memory studies -- including at least a few that in our view mistakenly employ the term 'inattentional blindness'!]. We are also not including conference abstracts, manuscripts under review, etc. -- though we are including in-press articles.)
The studies below are listed in chronological order, and by alphabetical order within year.
A Few Lab Pages Where at Least Several of These Papers Can be Downloaded
Papers (132 papers, 48 different journals)
Neisser, U., & Becklen, R. (1975). Selective looking: Attending to visually specified events. Cognitive Psychology, 7, 480-494.
Littman, D., & Becklen, R. (1976). Selective looking with minimal eye movements. Perception & Psychophysics, 20, 77-79.
Neisser, U. (1979). The control of information pickup in selective looking. In A. D. Pick (Ed.), Perception and its development: A tribute to Eleanor J. Gibson (pp. 201-219). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Bahrick, L. E., Walker, A. S., & Neisser, U. (1981). Selective looking by infants. Cognitive Psychology, 13, 377-390.
Becklen, R., & Cervone, D. (1983). Selective looking and the noticing of unexpected events. Memory & Cognition, 11, 601-608.
Stoffregen, T. A., & Becklen, R. C. (1989). Dual attention to dynamically structured naturalistic events. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 69, 1187-1201
Haines, R. F. (1991). A breakdown in simultaneous information processing. In G. Obrecht & L. W. Stark (Eds.), Presbyopia Research: From Molecular Biology to Visual Adaptation (pp. 171-175). New York: Plenum.
Mack, A., Tang, B., Tuma, R., & Kahn, S. (1992). Perceptual organization and attention. Cognitive Psychology, 24, 475-501.
Rock, I., Linnett, C. M., Grant, P., & Mack, A. (1992). Perception without attention: Results of a new method. Cognitive Psychology, 24, 502-534.
Stoffregen, T. A., Baldwin, C. A., & Flynn, S. B. (1993). Noticing of unexpected events by adults with and without mental retardation. American Journal on Mental Retardation, 98, 273-284.
Moore, C. M., & Egeth, H. (1997). Perception without attention: Evidence of grouping under conditions of inattention. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception & Performance, 23, 339-352.
Mack, A., & Rock, I. (1998a). Inattentional blindness. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Mack, A., & Rock, I. (1998b). Inattentional blindness: Perception without attention. In R. Wright (Ed.), Visual attention (pp. 55-76). New York: Oxford University Press.
Newby, E. A., & Rock, I. (1998). Inattentional blindness as a function of proximity to the focus of attention. Perception, 27, 1025-1040.
Simons, D. J. (1999). To see but not to see: Review of 'Inattentional Blindness' by A. Mack and I. Rock (1998). Journal of Mathematical Psychology, 43, 165-171.
Simons, D. J., & Chabris, C. F. (1999). Gorillas in our midst: Sustained inattentional blindness for dynamic events. Perception, 28, 1059-1074.
Wolfe, J. M. (1999). Inattentional amnesia. In V. Coltheart (Ed.), Fleeting memories: Cognition of brief visual stimuli (pp. 71-94). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Enns, J. T., & Di Lollo, V. (2000). What's new in visual masking. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 4, 345-352.
Humphreys, G. W. (2000). Neuropsychological analogies of inattentional blindness. Psyche, 6(16).
Most, S. B., Simons, D. J., Scholl, B. J., & Chabris, C. F. (2000). Sustained inattentional blindness: The role of location in the detection of unexpected dynamic events. Psyche, 6(14).
Rensink, R. (2000). When good observers go bad: Change blindness, inattentional blindness, and visual experience. Psyche, 6(9).
Simons, D. J. (2000). Attentional capture and inattentional blindness. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 4, 147-155.
Tzelgov, J. (2000). On processing in the inattention paradigm as automatic. Psyche, 6(17).
Braun, J. (2001). It's great but not necessarily about attention. Psyche, 7(6).
Carpenter, S. (2001). Sights unseen. Monitor on Psychology, 32, 54-57.
Driver, J., Davis, G., Russell, C., Turatto, M., & Freeman, E. (2001). Segmentation, attention and phenomenal visual objects. Cognition, 80, 61-95.
Dulany, D. E. (2001). Inattentional awareness. Psyche, 7(5).
Ellis, R. D. (2001). Implications of inattentional blindness for 'enactive' theories of consciousness. Brain and Mind, 2, 297-322.
Mack, A. (2001). Inattentional blindness: Reply to commentaries. Psyche, 7(16).
Moore, C. M. (2001). Inattentional blindness: Perception or memory and what does it matter? Psyche, 7(2).
Most, S. B., & Simons, D. J. (2001). Attention capture, orienting, and awareness. In C. Folk & B. Gibson (Eds.), Attraction, distraction, and action: Multiple perspectives on attentional capture (pp. 151-173). Amsterdam: Elsevier.
Most, S. B., Simons, D. J., Scholl, B. J., Jimenez, R., Clifford, E., & Chabris, C. F. (2001). How not to be seen: The contribution of similarity and selective ignoring to sustained inattentional blindness. Psychological Science, 12, 9-17.
Chun, M., & Marois, R. (2002). The dark side of visual attention. Current Opinion in Neurobiology, 12, 184-189.
Cohen, J. (2002). The grand grand illusion illusion. Journal of Consciousness Studies, 9, 141-157.
Lamme, V. (2002). Why visual attention and awareness are different. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 7, 12-18.
Mack, A. (2002). Is the visual world a grand illusion?: A response. Journal of Consciousness Studies, 9, 102-110.
Mack, A., Pappas, Z., Silverman, M., & Gay, R. (2002). What we see: Inattention and the capture of attention by meaning. Consciousness & Cognition, 11, 488-506.
Chan, W., & Chua, F. (2003). Grouping with and without awareness. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 10, 932-938.
Mack, A. (2003). Inattentional blindness: Looking without seeing. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 12, 180-184.
Moore, C. M., Grosjean, M., & Lleras, A. (2003). Using inattentional blindness as an operational definition of unattended: The case of surface completion. Visual Cognition, 10, 299-318.
Downing, P. E., Bray, D., Rogers, J., & Childs, C. (2004). Bodies capture attention when nothing is expected. Cognition, 93, B27-B38.
Koivisto, M., Hyona, J., & Revonsuo, A. (2004). The effects of eye movements, spatial attention, and stimulus features on inattentional blindness. Vision Research, 44, 3211-3221.
Levin, D. T., & Varakin, D. A. (2004). No pause for a brief disruption: Failures of visual awareness during ongoing events. Consciousness & Cognition, 13, 363-372.
Moore, C., Lleras, A., Grosjean, M., & Marrara, M. T. (2004). Using inattentional blindness as an operational definition of unattended: The case of a response-end effect. Visual Cognition, 11, 705-719.
Varakin, D. A., Levin, D. T., & Fidler, R. (2004). Unseen and unaware: Implications of recent research on failures of visual awareness for human-computer interface design. Human-computer Interaction, 19, 389-422.
Ambinder, M., & Simons, D. J. (2005). Attention capture: The interplay of expectations, attention, and awareness. In L. Itti, G. Rees, & J. Tsotsos (Eds.), Neurobiology of Attention (pp. 69-75). San Diego, CA: Elsevier.
Beck, D., & Lavie, N. (2005). Look here but ignore what you see: Effects of distractors at fixation. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception & Performance, 31, 592-607.
Dehaene, S., & Changeux, J-P. (2005). Ongiong spontaneous activity controls access to consciousness: A neuronal model for inattentional blindness. PLoS Biology, 3, e141.
Kuhn, G., & Tatler, B. (2005). Magic and fixation: Now you don't see it, now you do. Perception, 34, 1155-1161.
Lum, T. E., Fairbanks, R. J., Pennington, E. C., & Zwemer, F. L. (2005). Profiles in patient safety: Misplaced femoral line guidewire and multiple failures to detect the foreign body on chest radiography. Academic Emergency Medicine, 12, 658-662.
Most, S. B., Scholl, B. J., Clifford, E. R., & Simons, D. J. (2005). What you see is what you set: Sustained inattentional blindness and the capture of awareness. Psychological Review, 112, 217-242.
Russell, C., & Driver, J. (2005). New indirect measures of 'inattentive' visual grouping in a change-detection task. Perception & Psychophysics, 67, 606-623.
Todd, J., Fougnie, D., & Marois, R. (2005). Visual short-term memory load suppresses temporo-parietal junction activity and induces inattentional blindness. Psychological Science, 16, 965-972.
Wayand, J. F., Levin, D. T., & Varakin, A. (2005). Inattentional blindness for a noxious multimodal stimulus. American Journal of Psychology, 118, 339-352.
Wright, W. (2005). Distracted drivers and unattended experience. Synthese, 144, 41-68.
Campbell, T. W. (2006). Open and obvious under what conditions? American Journal of Forensic Psychology, 24, 23-32.
Clifasefi, S. L., Takarangi, M. K., & Bergman, J. S. (2006). Blind drunk: The effects of alcohol on inattentional blindness. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 20, 697-704.
Lavie, N. (2006). The role of perceptual load in visual awareness. Brain Research, 1080, 91-100.
Memmert, D. (2006a). Developing creative thinking in a gifted sport enrichment program and the crucial role of attention processes. High Ability Studies, 17, 101-115.
Memmert, D. (2006b). The effects of eye movements, age, and expertise on inattentional blindness. Consciousness & Cognition, 15, 620-627.
Sinnett, S., Costa, A., & Soto-Faraco, S. (2006). Manipulating inattentional blindness within and across sensory modalities. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 59, 1425-1442.
Summers, M. J. (2006). Increased inattentional blindness in severe traumatic brain injury: Evidence for reduced distractibility? Brain Injury, 20, 51-60.
Ariga, A., Yokosawa, K., & Ogawa, H. (2007). Object-based attentional selection and awareness of objects. Visual Cognition, 15, 685-709.
Cartwright-Finch, U., & Lavie, N. (2007). The role of perceptual load in inattentional blindness. Cognition, 102, 321-340.
Fougnie, D., & Marois, R. (2007). Executive working memory load induces inattentional blindness. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 14, 142-147.
Jingling, L., & Yeh, S. (2007). New objects do not capture attention without a top-down setting: Evidence from an inattentional blindness task. Visual Cognition, 15, 661-684.
Koivisto, M., & Revonsuo, A. (2007). How meaning shapes seeing. Psychological Science, 18, 845-849.
Schwitzgebel, E. (2007). Do you have constant tactile experience of your feet in your shoes? Or is experience limited to what's in attention? Journal of Consciousness Studies, 14, 5-35.
Tatler, B. W., & Kuhn, G. (2007). Don't look now: The magic of misdirection. In R. P. G. van Gompel, M. H. Fischer, W. S. Murray & R. L. Hill (Eds.), Eye Movements: A window on mind and brain (pp. 697-714). Oxford: Elsevier.
Wallace, R. (2007). Culture and inattentional blindness: A global workspace perspective. Journal of Theoretical Biology, 245, 378-390.
Apfelbaum, H., Apfelbaum, D., Woods, R., & Peli, E. (2008). Inattentional blindness and augmented-vision displays: Effects of cartoon-like filtering and attended scene.Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics, 28, 204-217.
Bressan, P., & Pizzighello, S. (2008). The attentional cost of inattentional blindness. Cognition, 106, 370-383.
Koivisto, M., & Revonsuo, A. (2008). The role of unattended distractors in sustained inattentional blindness. Psychological Research, 72, 39-48.
Kuhn, G., Tatler, B. W., Findlay, J. M., & Cole, G. G. (2008). Misdirection in magic: Implications for the relationship between eye gaze and attention. Visual Cognition, 16, 391-405.
Lee, H-J., & Telch, M. (2008). Attentional biases in social anxiety: An investigation using the inattentional blindness paradigm. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 46, 819-835.
Macknik, S., King, M., Randi, J., Robbins, A., Teller, Thompson, J., & Martinez-Conde, S. (2008). Attention and awareness in stage magic: Turning tricks into research. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 9, 871-879.
Pizzighello, S., & Bressan, P. (2008). Auditory attention causes visual inattentional blindness. Perception, 37, 859-866.
Railo, H., Koivisto, M., Revonsuo, A., & Hannulae, M. (2008). The role of attention in subitizing. Cognition, 107, 82-104.
White, R., & Davies, A. (2008). Attention set for number: Expectation and perceptual load in inattentional blindness. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception & Performance, 34, 1092-1107.
Lo, S., & Yeh, S. (2008). Dissociation of processing time and awareness by the inattentional blindness paradigm. Consciousness & Cognition, 17, 1169-1180.
Devue, C., Laloyaux, C., Feyers, D., Theeuwes, J., & Bredart, S. (2009). Do pictures of faces, and which ones, capture attention in the inattentional-blindness paradigm? Perception, 38, 552-568.
Koivisto, M., & Revonsuo, A. (2009). The effects of perceptual load on semantic processing under inattention. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 16, 864-868.
Memmert, D., Simons, D. J., & Grimme, T. (2009). The relationship between visual attention and expertise in sports. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 10, 146-151.
Simons, D. J., & Jensen, M. S. (2009). The effects of individual differences and task difficulty on inattentional blindness. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 16, 398-403.
Apfelbaum, H., Gambacorta, C., Woods, R., & Peli, E. (2010). Inattentional blindness with the same scene at different scales. Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics, 30, 124-131.
Beanland, V., & Pammer, K. (2010). Looking without seeing or seeing without looking? Eye movements in sustained inattentional blindness. Vision Research, 50, 977-988.
Furley, P., Memmert, D., & Heller, C. (2010). The dark side of visual awareness in sport: Inattentional blindness in a real-world basketball task. Attention, Perception & Psychophysics, 72, 1327-1337.
Hannon, E., & Richards, A. (2010). Is inattentional blindness related to individual differences in visual working memory capacity or executive control functioning? Perception, 29, 309-319.
Hyman, I., Boss, S., Wise, B., McKenzie, K., & Caggiano, J. (2010). Did you see the unicycling clown?: Inattentional blindness while walking and talking on a cell phone. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 24, 597-607.
Kuhn, G., & Findlay, J. (2010). Misdirection, attention and awareness. Inattentional blindness reveals temporal relationship between eye movements and visual awareness. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 63, 136-146.
Memmert, D. (2010). The gap between inattentional blindness and attentional misdirection. Consciousness & Cognition, 19, 1097-1101.
Memmert, D., & Furley, P. (2010). Beyond inattentional blindness and attentional misdirection: From attentional paradigms to attentional mechanisms. Consciousness & Cognition, 19, 1107-1109.
Moran, A., & Brady, N. (2010). Mind the gap: Misdirection, inattentional blindness and the relationship between overt and covert attention. Consciousness & Cognition, 19, 1105-1106.
Most, S. (2010). What's 'inattentional' about inattentional blindness? Consciousness & Cognition, 19, 1102-1104.
Richards, A., Hannon, E., & Derakshan, N. (2010). Predicting and manipulating the incidence of inattentional blindness. Psychological Research, 74, 513-523.
Simons, D. J. (2010). Monkeying around with the gorillas in our midst: Familiarity with an inattentional blindness task does not improve the detection of unexpected events. i-Perception, 1, 3-6.
Thakral, P., & Slotnick, S. (2010). Attentional inhibition mediates inattentional blindness. Consciousness & Cognition, 19, 636-643.
Chabris, C., Weinberger, A., Fontaine, M., & Simons, D. (2011). You do not talk about Fight Club if you do not notice Fight Club: Inattentional blindness for a simulated real-world assault. i-Perception, 2, 150-153.
de Fockert, J., & Bremner, A. (2011). Release of inattentional blindness by high working memory load: Elucidating the relationship between working memory and selective attention. Cognition, 121, 400-408.
Graham, E., & Burke, D. (2011). Aging increases inattentional blindness to the gorilla in our midst. Psychology & Aging, 26, 162-166.
Kuhn, G., & Tatler, B. (2011). Misdirected by the gap: The relationship between inattentional
blindness and attentional misdirection. Consciousness & Cognition, 20, 432-436.
Lathrop, W., Bridgeman, B., & Tseng, P. (2011). Perception in the absence of attention: Perceptual processing in the Roelofs effect during inattentional blindness. Perception, 40, 1104-1119.
Seegmiller, J., Watson, J., & Strayer, D. (2011). Individual differences in susceptibility to inattentional blindness. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, & Cognition, 37, 785-791.
Beanland, V., Allen, R., & Pammer, K. (2011). Attending to music decreases inattentional blindness. Consciousness & Cognition, 20, 1282-1292.
Cohen, M., Alvarez, G., & Nakayama, K. (2011). Natural-scene perception requires attention. Psychological Science, 22, 1165-1172.
Thakral, P. (2011). The neural substrates associated with inattentional blindness. Consciousness & Cognition, 20, 1768-1775.
Bredemeier, K., & Simons, D. (2012). Working memory and inattentional blindness. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 19, 239-244.
Hutterman, S., & Memmert, D. (2012). Moderate movement, more vision: Effects of physical exercise on inattentional blindness. Perception, 41, 963-975.
Mack, A., & Clarke, J. (2012). Gist perception requires attention. Visual Cognition, 20, 300-327.
Drew, T., Vo, M., & Wolfe, J. (2013). The invisible gorilla strikes again: Sustained inattentional blindness in expert obserers. Psychological Science, 24, 1848-1853.
Buetti, S., Lleras, A., & Moore, C. (2014). The flanker effect does not reflect the processing of 'task-irrelevant' stimuli: Evidence from inattentional blindness. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 21, 1231-1237.
Brown-Ianuzzi, J., Hoffman, K., Payne, B., & Trawalter, S. (2014). The invisible man: Interpersonal goals moderate inattentional blindness to African Americans. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 143, 33-37.
Calvillo, D., & Jackson, R. (2014). Animacy, perceptual load, and inattentional blindness. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 21, 670-675.
Lin, S., & Yeh, Y. (2014). Attentional load and the consciousness of one's own name. Consciousness & Cognition, 26, 197-203.
Memmert, D. (2014). Inattentional blindness to unexpected events in 8-15-year-olds. Cognitive Development, 32, 103-109.
Pammer, K., Korrel, H., & Bell, J. (2014). Visual distraction increases the detection of an unexpected object in inattentional blindness. Visual Cognition, 22, 1173-1183.
Papera, M., Cooper, R., & Richards, A. (2014). Artificially created stimuli produced by a genetic algorithm using a saliency model as its fitness function show that Inattentional Blindness modulates performance in a pop-out visual search paradigm. Vision Research, 97, 31-44.
Rattan, A., & Eberhardt, J. (2014). The role of social meaning in inattentional blindness: When the gorillas in our midst do not go unseen. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 46, 1085-1088.
Kreitz, C., Furley, P., Memmert, D., & Simons, D. (2015). Inattentional blindness and individual differences in cognitive abilities. PLoS One, 10(8), e0134675.
Kreitz, C., Schnuerch, R., Furley, P., Gibbons, H., & Memmert, D. (2015). Does semantic preactivation reduce inattentional blindness? Attention, Perception, & Psychophysics, 77, 759-767.
Kreitz, C., Schnuerch, R., Furley, P., Gibbons, H., & Memmert, D. (2015). Some see it, some don't: Exploring the relation between inattentional blindness and personality factors. PLoS ONE, 10(5), e0128158.
New, J., & German, T. (2015). Spiders at the cocktail party: An ancestral threat that surmounts inattentional blindness. Evolution and Human Behavior, 36, 165-173.
O'Shea, D., & Fieo, R. (2015). Individual differences in fluid intelligence predicts inattentional blindness in a sample of older adults: A preliminary study. Psychological Research, 79, 570-578.
Pammer, K., Bairnsfather, J., Burns, J., & Hellsing, A. (2015). Not all hazards are created equal: The significance of hazards in inattentional blindness for static driving scens. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 29, 782-788.
Schmidt, S., & Schmidt, C. (2015). Inattentional blindness and the von Restorff effect. Memory & Cognition, 43, 151-163.
Schofield, T., Creswell, J., & Denson, T. (2015). Brief mindfulness induction reduces inattentional blindness. Consciousness & Cognition, 37, 63-70.
Stothart, C., Boot, W., & Simons, D. (2015). Using Mechanical Turk to assess the effects of age and spatial proximity on inattentional blindness. Collabra, 1(1):2, 1-7.
Ward, E., & Scholl, B. J. (2015). Inattentional blindness reflects limitations on perception, not memory: Evidence from repeated failures of awareness. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 22, 722-727.
Beanland, V., & Chan, E. (2016). The relationship between sustained inattentional blindness and working memory capacity. Attention, Perception, & Psychophysics, 78, 808-817.
Calvillo, D., & Hawkins, W. (2016). Animate objects are detected more frequently than inanimate objects in inattentional blindness tasks independently of threat. Journal of General Psychology, 143, 101-115.
Goldstein, R., & Beck, M. (2016). Inattentional blindness: A combination of a relational set and a feature inhibition set? Attention, Perception, & Psychophysics, 78, 1245-1254.
Horwood, S., & Beanland, V. (2016). Inattentional blindness in older adults: Effects of attentional set and to-be-ignored distractors. Attention, Perception, & Psychophysics, 78, 818-828.
Kreitz, C., Furley, P., Memmert, D., & Simons, D. (2016). The influence of attention set, working memory capacity, and expectations on inattentional blindness. Perception, 45, 386-399.
Kreitz, C., Furley, P., Simons, D., & Memmert, D. (2016). Does working memory capacity predict cross-modally induced failures of awareness? Consciousness & Cognition, 39, 18-27.